"Organizations increasingly rely on Information and Communication Technology (ICT), which exposes them to risks from a range of threat actors. The term Advanced Persistent Threat (APT) is frequently used to refer to particularly capable threat actors. To raise their resilience against APT attacks, organizations can use attack models that are individually valuable but limited in their scope of application, such as Lockheed Martin’s Cyber Kill Chain© and MITRE’s ATT&CK™ framework. Paul Pols used a hybrid research design to iteratively develop a Unified Kill Chain, which combines and extends existing models to cover end-to-end cyber-attacks by external entities. The Unified Kill Chain can be used to defend against expected attacker behaviour through layered defence strategies that adopt the assume breach and defend in depth principles. The model was used to analyse and compare the tactical modus operandi of Fox-IT’s Red Team and that of APT28 alias Fancy Bear."

 

Key words: 3. Unified Kill Chain, Cyber Attacks, Attack Modeling, Defense in Depth, Fancy Bear, Red Team

 

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